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Retina Specialty

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Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease affecting clear vision in millions of older individuals. It’s characterized by the breakdown of macular cells, leading to dry or wet AMD. Dry AMD, found in 90% of cases, involves the gradual breakdown of macular cells by forming “drusen” deposits, causing spotty loss of central vision. Wet AMD, less common but more severe, results from abnormal blood vessels behind the macula, leading to rapid, severe damage and potential legal blindness.

Symptoms vary, but AMD can make reading and close-up work challenging. Using an Amsler grid for screening is recommended. Lifestyle modifications such as a low-fat diet, UV protection, and regular exercise are advised if diagnosed. Supplements rich in vitamins E, C, and Lutein may be beneficial. Quitting smoking is crucial, and early intervention for wet AMD can slow progression. Regular consultation with a physician is essential, especially for post-menopausal individuals considering estrogen replacement therapy for cholesterol management.

Fluorescein Angiography (FA)

Fluorescein Angiography (FA) diagnoses various eye conditions, including macular edema, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, vein blockages (BRVO or CRVO), macular pucker, and ocular melanoma. It is also employed to monitor changes in eye diseases over time and pinpoint treatment areas.

The process, typically done in your ophthalmologist’s office, involves the following steps:


Eye drops are used to dilate your pupil.


A yellow dye (fluorescein) is injected into a vein, usually in your arm, and travels through your body.


The dye reaches the blood vessels in your eye, causing them to fluoresce (shine brightly).


Special camera images are taken as the dye passes through your retina, helping your ophthalmologist identify issues and determine treatment focus